# Introductory Electronics

## Lesson 1 - Structure of Atoms

### Objectives

- Students will identify the parts of an atom.
- Students will explain the charges of sub atomic elements.
- Students will identify the valence shell on several different atoms.
- Students will describe the difference between a positive ion and negative ion.
- Students will name three atoms that are good conductors and explain why.
- Students will properly assemble an atom by placing the proper number of protons in the nucleus and electrons in the rings.
- Students will describe the difference between a positive and negative ion.

### Prerequisites

Since the mid 1950's no branch of science has contributed more to our modern world than electronics. Electronics are used in every part of our everyday world including the medical field, communication devices, computers, and industry.

All of these advances are based on the electrical principles of Current(*I*), Voltage(*V*), Resistance(*R*), and power. However, before we can understand these, we first need to know a little physics and how the atom works.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics01_Atoms(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 2 - Electrical Current

### Objectives

- Students will define electrical Current(
*I*). - Students will describe how electrons are transferred through a wire.

### Prerequisites

Previously you learned that an atom is made up of protons and neutrons in the nucleus with electrons orbiting the outside. The outside band of electrons is called the valence ring. Atoms with few atoms in the valence ring make good conductors.

These will assist you in understanding how electrons can flow through a wire to power your vacuum or microwave.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics02_Current(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 3 - Voltage

### Objectives

- Students will practice setting up various electrical potential differences.
- Students identify the Voltage(
*V*) of several common sources.

### Prerequisites

Previously you learned that atoms with extra electrons are negative ions and atoms that are missing electrons are positive ions. You also learned that when given the chance an atom will take or give electrons in an effort to remain neutral. A neutral atom has the same number of protons as electrons. You also learned that electrons travel through wires by jumping from valence ring to valence ring. This flow is called Current(*I*).

These will be helpful in your understanding of electrical pressure or Voltage(*V*) which is the force that moves electrons through a conductor.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics03_Voltage(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 4 - Conductance

### Objectives

- Student will describe three atomic properties that lead to good conductance.
- Student will list three good conductors.

### Prerequisites

Previously you learned that Voltage(*V*) is the pressure that pushes electrons through a wire and Current(*I*) is the flow of those electrons. You also learned about the force that the nucleolus exerts on the valence ring electrons and why some electrons move easily and others do not.

These two concepts will help you understand why some atoms are good at transporting electricity and others are not.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics04_Conductance(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 5 - Insulators

### Objectives

- Students will describe the difference between an insulator and a conductor.
- Students will describe dielectric strength.
- Students will define breakdown Voltage(
*V*).

### Prerequisites

Previously you learned what makes a good conductor and what physics properties contribute to conductance.

This will help you understand what makes a good insulator and what dielectric strength measures.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics05_Insulators(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 6 - Resistance

### Objectives

- Students will define Resistance(
*R*). - Students will describe the relationship between Resistance(
*R*) and Current(*I*). - Students will define an Ohm (Ω).

### Prerequisites

Previously you learned about dielectric strength and the properties of an insulator. You also learned about Current(*I*) and Voltage(*V*).

This will help you understand what Resistance(*R*) is its relationship to Current(*I*) flow and Voltage(*V*) pressure.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics06_Resistance(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 7 - Ohm's Law

### Objectives

- Students will describe Ohm's law and how it can be modified to find Current(
*I*) and Voltage(*V*). - Students will describe the relationship between Current(
*I*) and Voltage(*V*). - Students will describe the relationship between Current(
*I*) and Resistance(*R*).

### Prerequisites

Previously you learned about Current(*I*), Voltage(*V*), and Resistance(*R*).

In this lesson you will learn about the relationship between them and how to calculate each one for a simple circuit.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics07_OhmsLaw(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 8 - Energy, Work, Power

### Objectives

- Students will define Energy, Work and Power.
- Students will describe a transducer.
- Students will explain a kilowatt-hour.
- Students will describe a joule.
- Students will list the six types of energy.

### Prerequisites

Previously you have learned about Voltage(*V*) and Current(*I*).

In this lesson y you will learn how electricity fits into our understanding of Energy, Work and Power.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics08_EnergyWorkPower(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 9 - Series Circuits

### Objectives

- Students will describe a Series circuit and how components are connected.
- Students will calculate Resistance(
*R*) in a series circuit. - Students will calculate Current(
*I*) in a series circuit. - Students will calculate Voltage(
*V*) in a series circuit. - Students will identify the electronics symbol for a resistor and power supply.

### Prerequisites

Previously you have learned about Voltage(*V*), Current(*I*), and Resistance(*R*).

In this lesson you will learn how to calculate each of these for a simple circuit where the components are connected in series.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics09_SeriesCircuits(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 10 - Parallel Circuits

### Objectives

- Students will describe a parallel circuit and how components are connected.
- Students will calculate Resistance(
*R*) in a parallel circuit. - Students will calculate Current(
*I*) in a parallel circuit. - Students will calculate Voltage(
*V*) in a parallel circuit.

### Prerequisites

Previously you have learned about Voltage(*V*), Current(*I*), and Resistance(*R*) and how each is measured in a series circuit.

In this lesson you will learn how to calculate each of these for a simple circuit where the components are connected in parallel.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics10_ParallelCircuits(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 11 - Alternating Current

### Objectives

- Students will explain the difference between AC and DC.
- Students will describe how a generator creates Alternating Current.
- Students will define electrometric induction

### Prerequisites

Previously you learned the Direct Current or DC is the flow of electricity in a single direction. You also learned the symbol for a DC power supply and several sources that create DC power.

In this lesson you will learn about the kind of electricity that is generated by hydroelectric dams, wind turbines, and nuclear power plants.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics11_AlternatingCurrent(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 12 - Capacitance

### Objectives

- Students will describe capacitance.
- Students will describe how a capacitor is constructed.

### Prerequisites

Previously you leaned that an abundance of negative ions will seek to balance by giving up electrons to a source with fewer electrons. You also learned that some materials readily add extra electrons to the valence ring, which creates positive ions. You also learned that other materials such as paper and rubber do not facilitate the transfer of electrons.

All of these concepts are useful in understanding how capacitors work and how they are constructed.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics12_Capacitance(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 13 - Capacitive Circuits

### Objectives

- Students will explain why capacitors in parallel act like one large capacitor.
- Students will calculate total circuit capacitance for series and parallel circuits.
- Students will describe why capacitors filter low frequencies.

### Prerequisites

Previously you learned that when resistors are connected in parallel that the total Resistance(*R*) is less than the smallest resistor and when connected in series the total Resistance(*R*) is the combination of resistors. You also learned how to calculate total Resistance(*R*) for series and parallel circuits with multiple resistors.

All of these concepts are useful in understanding how to calculate total circuit capacitance for both parallel and series circuits.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics13_CapacitiveCircuits(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 14 - Electricity and Magnetism

### Objectives

- Students will describe electromagnetism.
- Students will explain how atomic theory relates to electromagnetism.

### Prerequisites

Previously you learned that an atom is made up of electrons, protons and neutrons. The electrons orbit the nucleolus in bands. Additionally, you learned that some elements like copper and silver transfer of electrons between atoms by giving up or adding electrons to the valence ring. You also learned that Current(*I*) is the flow of electrons through a wire and Voltage(*V*) is the pressure applied to moving the electrons.

Both of these concepts will be useful in understanding how electricity can be used to create magnetism and how magnetism can be use to create electricity.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics14_Electricity&Magnetism(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 15 - Inductance

### Objectives

- Students will define electromagnetic induction.
- Students will describe the effect of counter electromotive force in a circuit.
- Students will describe four factors that determine the amount of inductance.
- Students will explain why inductors oppose high frequencies.

### Prerequisites

Previously you learned about the effect of a magnet on a coil of wire and the ability of Current(*I*) moving though a coil to create magnetism. You have also learned that Alternating Current(*I*) travels in one direction, stops and then travels in the other direction.

All of these will be useful in this lesson, as you will learn more about how inductors are used in electronic circuits and the factors that determine the inductance of an inductor.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics15_Inductance(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 16 - Transformers

### Objectives

- Students will describe the basic operation of a transformer.
- Students will calculate the input and output Voltages.
- Students will define electromagnetism.
- Students will explain electromagnetic induction.
- Students will define primary and secondary coils as used in a transformer.

### Prerequisites

Previously you learned how a coil could be energized to create a magnetic field (electromagnetism) and how a magnetic field moving though a coil could create Current(*I*) flow (electromagnetic induction). You also learned that the amount of Current(*I*) was dependent on the size of the coil, the number of windings, and the material used for the core. In another lesson on Alternating Current(*I*), we mentioned that Voltage(*V*) could be changed up or down by using a transformer. Additionally, you know that power is the found by multiplying the Voltage(*V*) and the Current(*I*).

All of these will be necessary in helping you understand the basics of how a transformer works.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics16_Transformers(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 17 - RLC Circuits

### Objectives

- Students will calculate capacitive reactance for a RLC circuit.
- Students will calculate inductor reactance for a RLC circuit.
- Students will calculate impedance for a RLC circuit.
- Students will calculate current flow for a RLC circuit.

### Prerequisites

Previously you learned about resistive, inductive and capacitive circuits. You learned how to calculate the total circuit current, voltage, and resistance for all three of these when they were configured in parallel and series. You also learned that inductors stop high frequencies and capacitors stop low frequencies. You also know that in a series circuit the current flowing through each component is identical but the voltage is different. In a parallel circuit the voltage drop across each component is identical, but the current is different. In addition you know that voltage change across a capacitor is ahead of the source voltage and that voltage change across an inductor is behind the source voltage.

This knowledge will help you understand what happens when we combine all three of these elements in a single circuit.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics17_RLC_Circuits(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 18 - RLC Filters

### Objectives

- Students will construct the four different kinds of RLC filters.
- Students will describe how each filter works with multiple frequencies.

### Prerequisites

Previously you learned that capacitors inhibit low frequencies and inductors inhibit high frequencies.

In this section you will learn how we combine capacitors, inductors and resistors in a circuit to control the frequencies at the load.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics18_RLC Filters(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)

## Lesson 19 - Semiconductors

### Objectives

- Students will identify three common semiconductor materials.
- Students will describe a crystal and covalent bonding.
- Students will explain the relationship between excited state, conduction band, and hole.
- Students will describe the makeup of p and n type semiconductors.

### Prerequisites

Previously you learned about the makeup of an atom and why the atomic number effects the makeup of the valence ring. You also learned that the number of electrons in the valance ring affects the ability of a material to either facilitate the flow of electrons (conductor) or resist the flow of electrons (insulator). You also learned that when an atom gives up an electron it is a positive ion and when an electron takes an extra electron it is a negative ion.

In addition to conductors and insulators, there is another group of elements that lies somewhere between these two extremes. This third category is called semiconductors.

A basic understanding of insulators and conductors will help you with this lesson on semiconductors and how they are used in electronic circuits.

### Lesson

Play Sequence: Mechatronics19_Semiconductors(USERNAME: guest1, PASSWORD: guest1)